Ministry of Science, Research and Technology
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF NABI-AKRAM
Department of English Language
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Translation Studies
The Effect of the Translator’s Gender on Accuracy on literary Translation. (A case study on: And the Mountains Echoed by Khaled Hosseini)
Bahloul Salmani (Ph.D.)
به نام خدا
با تاییدات خداوند متعال جلسه دفاع از پایان نامه / رساله کارشناسی ارشد خانم فرنوش سهرابی در رشته زبان انگلیسی گرایش مترجمی زبان تحت عنوان بررسی تاثیر جنسیت مترجم در صحت ترجمه ادبی(بررسی موردی:و کوهستان به طنین آمد) که در تاریخ 24/4/93 در جلسه شورای تحصیلات تکمیلی به تائید رسیده است با حضور استاد (استادان ) راهنما ، مشاور و هیات داوران در موسسه آموزش عالی نبی اکرم (ص) در تاریخ 16/11/93 تشکیل گردید . در این جلسه ، پایان نامه / رساله فوق با موفقیت مورد دفاع قرار گرفت . نامبرده نمره به عدد ……………………، به حروف …………………… و امتیاز ……………………….. را دریافت نمود .
استاد (استادان ) راهنما
امضاء1- دکتر بهلول سلمانی
امضاء1- دکتر حسین صبوری
امضاء2- دکتر عبدالله باقری حمیدی
مدیر گروه دکتر محمود شکر الهی فر
مدیر امور پژوهشی و تحصیلات تکمیلی دکتر علی ستاری
معاونت امور پژوهشی و تحصیلات تکمیلی
To My Dear Parents And My Darling Spouse
I would like to express my deep gratitude and great appreciation to my supervisor Dr. Bahloul Salmani whose guidance and patience made me finish my thesis and his encouragement moved me to choose the topic and the research model and also to Rokhsare Sohrabi, the master of linguistics, whose knowledge and professional comments showed a new way on translation studies. I would like to thank all my professors in Nabiacram College, which did their best to increase my knowledge in translation studies.
The process of translation involves at least two languages and variety of messages which can be called form and meaning. In fact, the meaning is the message which is transferred by various features and it is the task of the translator to transfer the meaning of the source text into the target text.As it is known, in transferring the meaning some factors are involved such as the gender of translator and so on. In this research, the researcher made it clear that the gender of translator is one of these factors that affected the translation.The criteria of comparison between male and female translation was Wardaugh and in accuracy in translation was the model of Waddington Method A about accuracy in translation which had eight factors to compare translation which was involved: contresens, fauxsens, nonsense, Addition, omission, unresolved extralinguistic references, loss of meaning and inappropriate linguistic variation.The data was selected from the novel “And the Mountains Echoed” and two translation of it from a male translator by the name of “Mehdi Qebrayi” and a female one by the name of “Nastaran Zahiri” and as a result it was shown that the translation of the male translator was somehow different and maybe more accurate than the female one according to Waddingtn.So, this research showed that gender of translator had some effects on the accuracy of translation in literary text.
Key words: Gender in translation, accuracy in translation, author-oriented translation.
Table of Contents
Table of contents ……………..………………………………….………………………….I
List of tables ………………………………………………………………………..……… III
Abbreviations …………………….……………………………………………..…….….. IV
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTIOIN
1.2. Statement of the Problem:4
1.3. Purpose of the Study:7
1.4. Statement of Research Questions:7
1.5. Significance of the Study:7
1.6. Definition of Key Terms:9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
2. Review of the Related Literature11
2.2. Language and gender12
2.4. Translation and accuracy24
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Method and Approaches31
3.2. Corpus of the Study and samples31
3.4. Restatement of Research Questions37
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4. Data Analysis, Results and Discussion41
4.2. Analysis of Samples41
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
5. Conclusion, implications and suggestions for further research79
5.2. Pedagogical Implications83
5.3. Suggestions for Further Studies83
List of Tables
Table 3. 1 The Corpus of this Study32
Table 3. 2 A sample of accurate words table of the corpus of the study of male and female translator36
Table 4. 1 Frequency of categories applied to the translation of “And the Mountains Echoed75
DTS: Descriptive Translation Studies
SL: Source Language
TL: Target Language
ST: Source Text
TT: Target Text
Every process of translation involves at least two languages and variety of messages, which can be called form and meaning. In fact, the meaning is the message which is transferred by various features and it is the task of the translator to transfer the meaning of the ST into the TT. So, depending on different factors affecting the translator’s performance and the way the message is conveyed, different translations will be produced. Translation is an interdisciplinary field of study (Snell -Hornby, 1998; Bassnet, 2002; Hatim and Mundy, 2006; Rezvani, Riazi and Sahragard, 2011) and it is in connection with many other disciplines such as gender study (e.g. studying gender differences of translators on translation quality), Psychology (considering the psychological factors and their impact on translator’s performance), linguistics (the impact and the relation of any language skills on translation both oral and written). Gender of the translator is one of the factors that may affect the product of the translator, and the accuracy of translation is an important feature in evaluating any translated text. Ghodrati (1388,2009A.D. p.143)
This research aimed to work on the differences which might exist in terms of the accuracy between the translations done by male and female translators, like gender of translator.
Gender study is one of the subfields of sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society and specifically it is the descriptive study of the effect of any andall aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. It ranges from the study of the wide variety of dialects across a given region down to the analysis between the way men and women speak to one another. Ounas (2009, p.5)
Language and gender are linked and developed through man’s participation in every day social practice. It is proved through various investigations that the languages of men and women are really different (Holmes 1995: 1). In the past, women were invisible, yet today they believe that they possess a different voice, different psychology, different experience of love, etc. and also different culture from that of men (Coates 1997, p.13). Many studies have been conducted so far, regarding the role of the gender “as a determinant of linguistic usage” (Stockwell 2002, p.16).
Consequently, women are considered as the subordinate group and men as the dominant one, and for this reason, females are doing their best in order to be heard by the society and express their abilities to males. But regarding their translations, it must be said since translation is the product of man’s language; it must have the same characteristics as that of language. So, every translation must reflect the characteristics of the language of its translator. Ghodrati (1388, 2009 A.D. p.146)
This paragraph focuses on the fact that men marginalized women within the history. So this research confirms this idea or there are some other reasons; women have been victimized so, they are not accurate in their translation. Therefore, men are somehow more accurate in translating literary text.
In the process of translating a text, the message of the original should be preserved in the translation and this shows the fidelity or faithfulness of the translator to the original text. Beekman and Callow (1989, p.33) believe that a faithful translation is the one “which transfers the meaning and the dynamics of the original text”; and by ‘transferring the meaning’, they mean that the translation conveys the ST information to the TT reader. According to Beekman and Callow (1989, p.34), “only as the translator correctly understands the message, can he begin to be faithful”, and it is only then that “he can translate clearly & accurately”. In fact, faithfulness and fidelity are two terms which show how much the TT reconstructs the ST. Ghodrati (1388, 2009 A.D. p.146)
Some translation theorists believe that the translation should be evaluated by considering its ST as “the yardstick” (Manafi Anari 2004, p.34). Manafi Anari (2004, p.41) defines accuracy as “the exactitude or precision of the meaning conveyed” and in fact it “implies conformity of translation with the original text in terms of fact or truth”. Also, he defines ‘accurate translation’ as a translation “which is the reproduction of the message of the ST” (Manafi Anari 2004, p.34). Newmark (1996, p.111) believes that in translating a text, “the accuracy relates to the SL text, either to the author’s meaning, or to the objective truth that is encompassed by the text”, etc.According to the discussion above, accuracy can be considered as one of the representations of the faithfulness in translation, i.e. showing how accurately the translator has managed to reproduce the message of the ST into the TL.
Gender affects and influences on the process of writing and translating texts between languages.Regarding the translation accuracy, Larson (1984, p.485) believes that in some cases, when the translator tries to get the meaning of the ST and convey it to the TT, s/he may make some mistakes, either in the analysis of the ST, or in the process of conveying the meaning, and a different meaning may result; then, there is a need for a careful check regarding the accuracy of the translation. According to Method A of Waddington, the researcher decides to study if the gender of translator has any impression on accuracy in translating literary text and which one translate more accurate the male translator or female one.
1.2. Statement of the Problem:
Wordhaugh by distinguishing between “biological sex” and “socio-cultural gender” considers gender in language issue more cultural and context-oriented phenomenon (Wordhaugh, 2006, p.315-316). However, he considered both natural and grammatical gender system in languages (Ibid, p.320). ). In addition he mentioned the phonological differences, suprasegmental, lexical, syntactic, semantic, discourse, and the communication (Ibid, p.318-320).
The problem which is dealt with here is about studying if the gender of translator has anyimpression on accuracy in translating literary text according to whatever Wardaugh said about linguistically gender differences, and which one translated more accurate the male translator or the female one based on the first model of Method A of Waddington that is “Inappropriate renderings which affect the understanding of the ST”.As an example there is such a sentence with two translations:
Sample1. Every day, he labored from dawn to sundown, plowing his field and turning the soil and tending to his meager pistachio trees. (p.2)
مترجم مرد: هر روز از بام تا شام مزرعه اش را شخم می زد و خاک را زیر و رو می کرد و به درخت های پسته ی کم بارش می رسید.) ص9)
Faux sens: sundown:شام
مترجم زن: هر روز خدا، از خروسخوان صبح تا غروب آفتاب، جان می کند. خاک مزرعه اش را شخم می زد و زیرورو می کرد و به درخت های پسته ی بی باروبرش می رسید.) ص9)
خروسخوان / خدا
Inappropriate linguistic Variation: he labored from dawn to sundown:
از خروسخوان صبح تا غروب آفتاب، جان می کند.
(Creating a colloquial tone)
Discussion of Sample 1.
As Wardaugh said in his book “An Introduction to Sociolinguistics”, ” when we turn to certain grammatical matters in English, we find that Brend claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary somewhat, women using certain pattern associated with surprise and politeness more often than menWardaugh (2006, p.321). In the same vain Lakoff says that women may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question rather than the falling intonation pattern associated with making a firm statement. According to Lakoff, women do this because they are less sure about themselves and their opinions than are men. For the same reason, she says that women often add tag questions to statements, e.g, “they caught the robber last week, didn’t they? The latter investigators did find, however, that the sex of the addressee was an important variable in determining how a speaker phrased a particular question. Wardaugh (1986, p. 306).
And also the male translator chose a different word for translating the word (sundown) which is faux sense according to Waddington. But the female translator chooses another equivalent for translating it. This difference refers to their differences in choosing and using different vocabularies that shows men and women are morphologically different.
The female translator added two words (khroskhan and khoda) in her translation that changes the structure of the source text. But male translator didn’t add any words in his translation. So, it refers to Wardaugh that men and women are grammatically and morphologically different because these two translations of one sentence are structurally different.
As Wardaugh mentioned in his book “In the area of morphology and vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English. Lakoff, for example, claims that women use color words like mauve, beige, aquamarine, Lavender, and Magenta but most men do not. She also maintains that adjectives such as adorable, charming, divine, lovely, and sweet are also commonly used by women but only very rarely by men. Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, words and expressions such as so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, divine, precious, adorable, darling, and fantastic.” Lakoff cites numerous examples and clearly establishes her point that ‘equivalent’ words referring to men and women do have quite different associations in English. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304)
Since most of us realize that it is not only where you come from that affects your speech but also your social and cultural background, age, gender, race, occupation, and group loyalty, the traditional bias toward geographic origin alone now appears to be a serious weakness.
Phonological differences between the speech of men and women have been noted in a variety of languages. Wardaugh (1986, p. 304). The female translator used inappropriate linguistic variation for translating (he labored from dawn to sundown) but in male translation this factor isn’t seen. As Wardaugh said men and women are different in their speech styles and this fact is reflected in their styles of translating and finding equivalences for the source text.
1.3. Purpose of the Study:
Because of the importance of the process of translation on man’s life and on her/ his activities in today’s societies, it is necessary to know the significant various factors affecting it that one of these factors is gender of the translator so, the aim of this study was to identify the role of the gender of the translator on the accuracy of the translation, and to determine whether there is any difference between the translations done by female and male translators in terms of translation accuracy. One English novel and two translations of it, one done by a female and the other by a male translator, are selected. Each translation was compared with its source text, sentence by sentence, and based on some certain categories, their inappropriate renderings affecting the understanding of the ST, and in fact affecting the translation accuracy, are extracted. By analyzing the data and applying some statistical analysis, the total numbers of the observed inappropriate renderings of each group of the female and male translators are counted. So the researcher aims to study the effect of translator’s gender on accuracy in translating the novel “And the Mountains Echoed” by Khaled Hosseiniand and two translators by Mehdi Ghebrayi and Nastaran Zahiri that these translators have the same culture and just their difference is their sex and the purpose of this research is just to know the effect of their gender on their translation.
1.4. Statement of Research Questions:
Through this research some questions will be followed in comparison between two translations of the novel “And the Mountains Echoed” which are hoped to be answered through this research.
1. How does translator’s gender affect the accuracy of translation in the work “And the Mountains Echoed” novel?
2. Is male translator more author-oriented than female in “And the Mountains Echoed” novel?
3. Are 8 factors of Waddington model of accuracy seen in male translator more than female one?
1.5. Significance of the Study:
Newmark (1988, p.3) also calls 20th century “the age of translation” or “reproduction”. Translation is considered as an essential factor in the development of different societies all over the world. The concept of translation, however, is not just the mechanical act of transferring meaning from one language into another, rather as Benjamin asserts, it is the act of “re-creation.” Newmark (1988, p.82).
Over the past several decades and after the women’s movement, gender issues got involved in the language issues; meanwhile the translation studies developed more and more (von Flotow 1997, p.1). Regarding the translation, it can be assumed that since translation is the product of the language of the human being, it might have the same characteristics as those of language. So, every translation might reflect the characteristics of the language of its translator.
According to Von Flotow (1997, p.5), “gender refers to the sociocultural construction of both sexes”. During 1960s-1970s, feminist thinkers discussed socialized difference between women and men and the cultural and political powerlessness of these two genders (von Flotow 1997, p.5). About the concept of gender, Sherry Simon (1996, p.5) believes that “gender is an element of identity and experience which, like other cultural identities, takes form through social consciousness”. By reviewing the history of translation, we can discover that always there have been “well-known debates over how best to be faithful”; then, it is not astonishing “that fidelity in translation has been consistently defined in terms of gender and sexuality” (Chamberlain, cited in Baker 1998, p.93).
So the researcher of this study is going to show whether there is any differences between male and female translations or not. So, this study will be useful to the writer and the readers. Based on considering the difficulty of translating literary text, the researcher is going to study the effect of translator’s gender and difference between male and female one on accuracy in translating this novel “And the Mountains Echoed”. It can be also a contribution in the development of translation theory and gives the information to the translators in translating literary text.
And also, it is showed that in addition to different factors on translation quality, the gender of translator is one of these factors that affect the product of the translator. So, by considering different studies on the influence of gender on different matters such as literal, scientific and political texts, it is possible to pay attention to different qualities on the translation of these texts. It can be considered as career counseling it means that every person does job according to his or her profession and specialty. So, with regarding these factors translation agencies employ the exact translators for translating different texts.
In this thesis, it is showed that in addition to differenteffective factors on translation quality, the gender of translator is among these factors that affect the product of the translator. So, by considering different studies on the influence of gender on different matters such as literary, scientific and politically texts, by considering gender of translator, it is possible to pay attention to different qualities on the translation of these texts. It can be considered as career counseling it means that every person do job according to his or her profession and specialty. So, with regarding these factors translation agencies employ the exact translators for translating different texts
So, the researcher is going to study the effect of translator’s gender and the difference between male and female one on accuracy in translating “And the Mountains Echoed” novel.
1.6. Definition of Key Terms:
Gender in translation:according to Kamarae and Spender (2000, p.900), define gender as the term which is “ used by many scholars and activists, refers to the socially constructed and socially expected differences between men and women as opposed to sex, which refers to the biological distinction between females and males.”
Accuracy in translation: according to Ghodrati (1388, 2009 A.D. p.146), it is “the exactitude or precision of the meaning conveyed” that representations of the faithfulness in translation, and showing how accurately the translator has managed to reproduce the message of the ST into the TL.
Author-oriented translation: according to Stein, author was the determiner of a text’s meaning. The text meant what theauthor of the text consciously willed to convey by the words him or her hadwritten. Texts were understood as a form of communication, and in communicationwe seek to understand what the author of that communication seeks to convey.
Review of the Related Literature
2. Review of the Related Literature
Translation is the process of transferring the message of the source text language into the target language; therefore, the translator deals with two languages. Then, many factors which affect the quality of language may affect the quality of translation. Many studies have been conducted on gender and language and it seems that each gender has got its own certain language and applies some particular linguistic features and forms more or less than other gender for specific purposes. Gender is one of the most significant factors that nowadays researchers have taken into a great consideration and devoted their life to investigate different effects which gender may have on different aspects of translation. (Ghodrati 1388, 2009 A.d. p.12). A major issue in sociolinguistic studies has been the relation between gender and language.
The data was selected from “And the mountain echoed” novel by “Khaled Hossini” and two translations of it by a male “Mehdi Ghebrayi” and a female translator “Nastaran Zahiri”.
Khaled Hosseini was born in Afghanistan, the oldest of five children, and spent the first years of his childhood in the capital city, Kabul. Although Afghan culture lacked a long tradition of literary fiction, Hosseinienjoyed reading foreign novels in translation and began to compose stories of his own.When Khaled Hosseini was a child, he read great dealofPersian poetry, especially the poems of sufis such as Rumi,Hafez, Omar Khayyám, Abdul-Qādir Bēdil, and others. He nowcalls the collected poems of Hafez, the Divan-e-Hafez as hisfavorite book. He also cites a Farsi translation of JackLondon’s White Fangas a keyinfluence on his youthfulimagination,as well as Persian translations of novelsranging from to Mickey Spillane’s MikeHammerseries.
In March 2001, while practicing medicine, Hosseini began writing his first novel, The KiteRunner. Published by Riverhead Booksin 2003, that debut went on to become an internationalbestseller and beloved classic. In May 2007, his second novel, AThousand Splendid Suns, debuted at #1 on theNew York Times bestseller list, remaining inthat spot for fifteen weeks and nearly an entireyear on the bestseller list. Together, the two books have sold more than 10 million copiesin the UnitedStates and more than 38 million copies worldwide. The Kite Runner Wasadapted into a graphic novel of the same name in 2011. Hosseini’s much awaited thirdnovel, And the Mountains Echoed, published on May 21, 2013. Rather, the book is written similarly to a collection of short stories, with each of the nine chapters being told from the perspective of a different character. The book’s foundation is built on the relationship between ten-year-old Abdullah and his three-year-old sister Pari and their father’s decision to sell her to a childless couple in Kabul, an event that ties the various narratives together.
2.2. Language and gender
The earliest research about language and gender can be traced back to as early as ancient Greek. At that time, many dramas witnessed gender differences in language. However, it was not until the early 20th century that language and gender attracted anthropologists’ and linguists’ attention.
Though there is a trend to study language and gender, it has not become an independent linguistic topic until the 1960s, when feminist movement appeared and sociolinguistics advanced. In the 1770s, such well-known linguists as Lakoff, Trudgill, Zimmerman, West, Thorne and Henley made a great contribution to the study by exploring the social roots of gender differences in language. Gradually, studies began to flourish. In the early 1980s, Bolinger and other linguists thought of gender differences in language as a kind of sexism.
Since language is used as a tool for human communication, it is inevitably featured by gender. For quite a long time, language and gender studies have been a heated issue in sociolinguistics and pragmatics. Former studies focus on linguistic levels such as phonology, grammar, syntax and gender differences. However, few of them are conducted in specific contexts. With the development of society, language and gender study in a certain context deserves to be conducted. Li (2014, pp. 52-57)
Many studies have been conducted on gender and language and it seems that each gender has got its own certain language and applies some particular linguistic features and forms more or less than other gender for specific purposes.
Kamarae and Spender (2000:900) define gender as the term which is “ used by many scholars and activists, refers to the socially constructed and socially expected differences between men and women as opposed to sex, which refers to the biological distinction between females and males.”
Lakoff, in 1975, published an influential account of women’s language. This was the book “Language and Woman’s Place”. This book introduces to the field of sociolinguistics many ideas about women’s language that are now often commonplace. It has inspired many different strategies for studying language and gender, across national borders as well as across class and race lines.Her work is noted for its attention to class, power, and social justice in addition to gender. In a related article, “Woman’s language” she published a set of basic assumptions about what marks out the language of women. She identified a “women’s register,” which she argued served to maintain women’s (inferior) role in society. Lakoff argued that women tend to use linguistic forms that reflect and reinforce a subordinate role. These include tag questions, question intonation, and “weak” directives, among others. Lakoff also have been labeled the “deficit approach,” since they posit that one gender is deficient in terms of the other. Descriptions of women’s speech as deficient can actually be dated as far back as Otto Jespersen’s “The Woman,” a chapter in his 1922 book Language: “Its Nature and Development”. Jespersen’s idea that women’s speech is deficient relative to a male norm went largely unchallenged until Lakoff’s work appeared fifty years later. Nevertheless, despite the political incorrectness of the chapter’s language from a modern perspective, Jespersen’s contributions remain relevant. These include the prospect of language change based on social and gendered opportunity, lexical and phonological differences, and the idea of genderlects and gender roles influence language.Lakoff proposes that women’s speech can be distinguished from that of men in a number of ways, including:
1. Hedges: Phrases like “sort of”, “kind of”, “it seems like”
2. Empty adjectives: “divine”, “adorable”, “gorgeous”
3. Super-polite forms: “Would you mind…” “…if it’s not too much to ask” “Is it o.k. if…?”
4. Apologize more: “I’m sorry, but I think that…”
5. Speak less frequently
6. Avoid coarse language or expletives
7. Tag questions: “You don’t mind eating this, do you?” Subsequent research has cast some doubt on this proposition
8. Hyper-correct grammar and pronunciation: Use of prestige grammar and clear articulation
9. Indirect requests: “Wow, I’m so thirsty.” – really asking for a drink
10. Speak in italics: Use tone to emphasis certain words, e.g., “so”, “very”, “quite”
11. Use direct quotation: men paraphrase more often.
12. Have a special lexicon: women use more words for things like colors e.g. magenta, aquamarine. , men for sports.
13. Use question intonation in declarative statements: women make declarative statements into questions by raising the pitch of their voice at the end of a statement, expressing uncertainty. For example, -“What school do you attend? -Eton College?”
14. Use “wh-” imperatives: (such as, “Why don’t you open the door?”)
15. Overuse qualifiers: (for example, “I think that…”)
16. Use modal constructions: (such as can, would, should, ought to – “Should we turnup the heat?”)
17. Use more intensifiers: especially “so” and “very” (for instance, “I am so glad you -came!”)
18. Lack a sense of humor: women do not tell jokes well and often don’t understand the punch line of jokes. Language and Women’s place (Lakoff 1975, p,45-80)
Wardaugh (2006, p.315-316) by distinguishing between “biological sex” and “socio-cultural gender” consider gender in language issue more cultural and context-oriented phenomenon. However, he considered both natural and grammatical gender system in languages (Ibid, p.320). In addition he mentioned the phonological differences, suprasegmental, lexical, syntactic, semantic, discourse, and the communication (Ibid, p.318-320).He refers to three dominant approaches to explaining gender differences in two sexes as follow: the biological differences between men and women, male dominance over women, and social differences between men and women. With regarding to social differences between men and women he notes to tendency of both genders to different issues for speaking and he knows the cause of brevity and speech reduction from underlying interests. Then he studies the communication strategies such as controversy, react (asking questions, encouraging to speak, confirmation), interrupting speech, the different goals of it (empathy, control, etc.) and the difference between the sexes (Ibid, p.326). Anyway, he rejects decisively remarks and without regarding to context about any kind of comparison between the sexes. Another topic that Wardaugh discusses is the gender issues and the possibility of gender programming of languages. Wardaugh believed that with formal changes of languages cannot achieve a fundamental change in gender discrimination. In his opinion these discriminations resolved when the intellectual foundations of women and men have changed (Ibid, p.331).
Modarresi in explaining the linguistic differences between men and women are further distinguished by the social differences (Modarresi 1368, 1999 A.D. p.170-160). He says that because each one of both sexes in some areas is more active than the other gender, the terms related to that area is considered masculine or feminine. Modarresi also refers to the two genders specific language patterns and believes that when women and men in society do not follow these patterns, will lose their special social status, or at least ridiculed. Modarresi mentioned the amount of gender differences of various languages (ibid, p.162). From Lakoff quotation he knows more unstable and precarious social status of women than men considered and query the reflection of these social status in language (ibid. p.169-168). Differences between men and women in terms of discourse refers to the fact that women talk usually the focal questioning, skeptical and seek support while men talk from the aggressive stance, competitive and controller.
Paknahad Jabaruty on explaining the gender differences in languages more inclined to the hypothesis that male dominance on language and gender inequality (Paknahad Jabaruty, 1381, 2003 A.D. p. 36-35). However, he knows effective two different methods of socialization of boys and girls in societies in shaping inequalities. In his opinion confining the girls to home environment causes them to grow in a noncompetitive environment, but the boys could freely leave the house and be at the outside of the house causes them to have a controlling and competitive behavior. He mentioned the higher status of men than women in the home and outside the home and regarded lower social status of women a cultural heritage which is transferred to the children in both the home and outside the home environment. However Jabaruty point out the social status of men conflict in home and some social positions and also the mother’s personality contrasts ideal location (promoted by the community) and her real social status, she points out (ibid, p.25).with citing to his own research data Jabaruty concluded that in Farsi, language inequality is in favor of men.
Peter Trudgill “gender, social class and speech sounds” 1970s research into language and social class showed some interesting differences between men and women. Trudgill studied the effect of gender on variation in word-final –ing in words like running (runnin’) and swimming (swimmin’). He found that women tend to use more standard language features than men and men tend to use more vernacular forms in their speech.
Oana-Helena (2002) in his article “Gender issues in translation” states that the cultural turn in translation studies allows us to understand translation as being related to other aspects of communication. It defines translation as a process of mediation which moves through ideology and identity. Translation has traditionally been looked upon as a secondary reproductive activity. This is associated with misogynist stereotypes of women, and it can therefore be argued that translation is described in gendered terms, negatively related to women. It is a fact that, historically; women have been discouraged from participation in the public sphere. Some norm and make their voice heard.In feminist theory, translation is viewed as production, not reproduction. Language is a means of creating meaning, and meaning is created in order to reveal feminine identity. Feminist translation redefines the notion of fidelity, equivalence and the invisibility of the translator. These are directed not at the original but at the feminist project, i.e. the reworking of meaning so as to reverse the effects of male social and cultural domination.
Tannen examines gender linguistics from discourse perspective. He believes thatcommunication is not just intended to say the intention and objectives, but to fulfill the quality of objectives (regardless of its meaning) that is usually influenced by the culture in shaping a society’s ultimate purpose is very important (Tannen 1995, p.138) . He knows one of the durability factors of the particular style of speech of each sex tend to communicate more with his homosexuality (Ibid, p.139).
Kaushanskaya, Marianand Yoo (2011) in their article “Gender differences in adult word learning” state that in prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning.
In all-female discourse, it is common that two or more people speak at the same time (simultaneous speech) and this does not disturb their conversation (Coates 1995, p.23).Coates (1995, p.23) has examined that female speakers keep “a turn-taking model”, although “the rule of one-person-at-a-time” does not employ. The co-conversationalists may make comments or ask questions while another communicator is speaking; and in fact, asking questions and making comments elucidate that they are listening to their speakers; moreover, in their simultaneous speech, they use several topics and also overlapping speech is seen in their conversations. Studies have proved that men mostly apply a competitive style of discourse whereas women use a more cooperative style of speech (Coates 1995, p.13). Several studies have been conducted on all-female discourse to find out what are the significant linguistic features constructing females’ cooperative discourse. As Coates (1995, p.22) states, in conversations, some speakers may take the role of ‘expert’ whereas some others ask the expert their questions. She says through conducting several studies, it is found that women avoid taking the role of ‘expert’, for this might “disturb the symmetry of the group”; therefore, questions for seeking information are few in all-female discourse while interrogative forms are used frequently in order to determine the acceptability of the said information; moreover, in order to ensure that a conversation continues, females keep asking questions.
Tabitha W. Payne and Richard Lynn (2011) in their article “Sex differences in second language comprehension” report that females have higher average ability than males in second language learning in studies using children. We further investigated this issue by examining potential sex differences in second language ability in college students matched for the age of acquisition of the second language, the number of classes taken, working memory capacity, and English Reading Comprehension. The results showed that females performed significantly better than males in second language reading comprehension when they are matched on all these variables, suggesting that females have a stronger module for second language processing than do males.
Hannah and Murachver (1999) in their article “Gender and Conversational Style as Predictors of Conversational Behavior” state that because gender and speech style co-vary, effects that have been attributed to speakers’ gender-based status might in fact be consequences of how people respond to particular styles of speech. To examine the relative impact of gender and speech style on conversant’ speech behavior, female and male confederates were trained to employ a facilitative or a non-facilitative style of speech in interactions with young adults. Analyses of participants’ conversations with confederates showed that confederate speech style, rather than confederate gender, was a more reliable predictor of participants’ speech behavior. In conjunction with analyses of participant accommodation to confederate speech, the results revealed subtle differences in how women and men responded to the behavior of confederates.
Translation is a process conducted in language, a process of changing a text in one language into another language. The change consists of some aspects, such as phonetic, grammatical, and semantic. Therefore, a translator must use the theory of language as a footing or the principle that supports him/her.
Based on Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, translation is “the process of changing something that is written or spoken into another language.”
In globalization era, translation is very useful and needed by human. By translation, communication between human beings in various parts of the world can be done effectively. Science and technology which is evolving from many countries may be accessed easily. Transfer of science, culture, and other social activities mostly is done through translation. Gunawan (2011, p. 1)
Catford stressed the notion of translation as the process of substituting a text from one language into another language. Nida and Taber state that the translation should be the closest natural equivalent of source language, both in the meaning and the style of receptor language.
Newmark defines translation as “rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text.” According to Larson, “translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language”. Thus, they agree that something which is transferred in a translation is meaning, not form. Besides that, there should be naturalness in the meaning as the rules of receptor language. Then Machali states that the translation must be able to communicate or to act as “the bridges of meaning” between the manufacturer of the source text and receptor text reader. Translation is an act of communication that conveys messages from authors to readers. Wills argues that the purpose of translation is to get the optimal equivalent and there must be semantic and pragmatic understanding in receptor language text. Gunawan(2011, p. 12)
Hatim and Mason propose the definition of translation which is suitable to literary translation. They say that translation is looked upon as “an act of communication which attempts to relay, across cultural and linguistic boundaries, another act of communication (which may have been intended for different purposes and different readers/ hearers)”. In this case, a translation is receiver the message of source language then he acts as sender to receptor language. In other words, a translator has two task, first he must be a good receiver, That is willing understand what the author mean, secondly he acts as sender in which he must be able to render the sense what he had got accurately to readers. Gunawan(2011, p. 14)
Translation can be defined as an art of reproduction which transfers themeaning of a text from one language to another (Simon 1996: 12). Goddard (1999: 91, cited in Simon 1996: 12) claims that translator is described as “a servant, an invisible hand” who mechanically transforms the words of one language into those of another. According to Barbara Godard (1995a: 73, cited in Simon 1996: 23) translation should not be considered as a simple process of transferring the meaning from one language into another, but it is a continuation of the process creating meaning done in the network of texts and social discourses. The feminist translator believes that she actively contributes in the process of creating the meaning of the text (Simon 1996: 29).
A definition which is not confined to the mere transference of meaning is furnished by Nida and Taber (1969: 12) who postulate translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. (Emphasis is mine). Bell (1991: 5-6) seems to have pursued the same line of emphasis on meaning and style in his translation of the definition given by the French theorist, Dubois (1974):
Translation is the expression in another language (or the target language) of what has been expressed in another, source language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences.
Translation is “an incredibly broad notion which can be understood in many different ways” (Shuttleworth & Cowie 1997, p.181). Hatim and Munday (2004, p.3) believe that translation is a phenomenon which has a great effect on everyday life. According to Gutt (1991, p.122, cited in Hatim & Munday2004,